In August 1936 Himmler opened the first Lebensborn home at Steinhöring outside Munich, offering Aryan women a place where they could deliver their illegitimate babies and keep the births secret from the outside world. Several hundred of the children were sent off to Germany to be adopted or to be cared for by the families of their fathers. Others, like Delorme's, were jailed as traitors. Few master-race progeny will admit to their origins. The problem was resolved by lowering the age of local Hitler Youth leaders to 16 and 17. Growing up in Oslo, I was told my father was sent to the Eastern Front, where he died in action. The first stories reporting that Lebensborn was a coercive breeding programme can be found in the German magazine Revue, which ran a series on the subject in the 1950s. They were bred to be the elite of Hitler's 1,000-year Reich but ended up cowed by shame, alienation and uncertainty for decades. He is now a cleaner at a Norwegian university. That they were given to us?". Ricardo Stuekerjuerge - 35th St SE, Hawthorne, Florida: 352-612-3404: Marva Kalas - M St SW, Hawthorne, Florida: 352-612-3471: Scotty Honzel - Edgewood St NE, Hawthorne, Florida: 352-612-8201: Adina Mcintyde - Butterworth Pl NW, Hawthorne, Florida: 352-612-9131: Johnie Huddleson - Weequahic Ave, Hawthorne, Florida: 352-612-9537 When released they had to register their new residences with the occupying forces. The second generation often had trouble personally confronting their Nazi parents. Altogether, Himmler established more than 20 Lebensborn institutions. Both live out the Holocaust daily, unable to move forward with their lives. “My idea, which I’ve taken from my father at that time, is that he was in dispute with maybe the Jews, but he took refuge in Cairo at that time,” said Tarek Abdelmoneim el Rifai, the son of Abdelmoneim el Rifai, 88, Dr. Heim’s dentist in Cairo and close friend. Born in Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, Kahrau has hazy memories of elegant surroundings, important-looking men in crisp uniforms, a life of privilege and comfort. And he slept in empty sheds and in trees by tying himself to branches. But yes, he added later, he remembered some Polish, even though there had been severe punishments for speaking it, and he remembered his mother, though his father hardly at all. Though it was 53 years ago and the farm was of traditional Bavarian design, I might recognize to this day the long, single-story, white-painted building with its uncurtained small windows. The first thousand-bomber raid occurred in May 1942 against Cologne. But the project came to nothing as most of these would-be saboteurs were quickly captured or killed by the Allies as they advanced into the Reich. Putnam's Sons, _a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. CAIRO — Even in old age the imposingly tall, athletic German known to locals as Tarek Hussein Farid maintained the discipline to walk some 15 miles each day through the busy streets of Egypt’s capital. The verdict: A violation against human rights. She told me that not everyone is open-minded. And also I always wished to go back to the village and put a flower on my mother's grave.". 317-883-1596 Trisanu Galella. In the beginning, the Lebensborn were taken to SS nurseries. It gave me a feeling of low self-esteem, of loneliness, of uncertainty. A register number is all that remains of their Lebensborn childhood. She learned the truth after her uncle returned home from the war and told his wife that he wouldn't live in the same house "with this SS bastard.". It had been so long ago. Titulo: Estrella distante Autor: Roberto Bolaño Páginas: 160 ISBN: 843391040X. “Tarek Hussein Farid is the name my father took when he converted to Islam,” said his son Rüdiger Heim. The Allies, for their part, were about to have their first encounter with Hitler's fanatical boy-soldiers. Here is one of German nurseries set up procide places for rscially select mothers to have their babies and t provide a year of post natal care. child. Twenty four German divisions were trapped inside the Falaise Pocket with a narrow 20 mile gap existing as the sole avenue of escape. Ms. Heidenreich was not told about her background but became suspicious after watching a television documentary about the Lebensborn children. I had planned to arrive when they would all be there together. "We did lots of climbing and obstacle courses and we learned to march. A dusty briefcase with rusted buckles, sitting nearly forgotten in storage here in Cairo, hid the truth behind Dr. Heim’s flight to the Middle East. I decided to approach each child with candor-what was it like for them to grow up in a Nazi family? But the very fact that this organization operated under the supervision of the propaganda ministry (whose head, Joseph Goebbels, is featured in this photograph) makes clear that the WHW was about more than just welfare work. "We will never be rid of the stigma, not until we are dead and buried," says one of the Lebensborn interviewed by Marland, Paul Hansen. Civilized notions of generosity and sympathy for those in need faded. They include archaeology professor Ricardo Eichmann, 55, who talks about his dad — "desk murderer" Adolf Eichmann, who organised the transport of the six million Jews who died in the Holocaust to the extermination centres. Whether you're the grandfather or the grandson — guilty is guilty.". "They were angry at their mothers, because they had been lied to or abandoned. In the book_ My Father' s Keeper _by Stephan and Norbert Lebert, the stories of six children of Nazi leaders are portrayed. As their stories of abuse were read out to the court, some of the former Lebensborn children sat in tears. Nazi-hunters like Simon Wiesenthal had information on the criminals, especially the remaining fugitives, but virtually no information on the children. 804-408-9905 Chatillon Cruser. Even though songs were part of German family culture (and group singing a vital part of Nazi youth education), in a number of cases the sound of Polish nursery songs and children's prayers brought back images of home. Germanized children were very defensive of the Lebensborn. His eyes were blue, his hair was blond. In February 1945, project Werewolf began, training German children as spies and saboteurs, intending to send them behind Allied lines with explosives and arsenic. During the 12-year history of the Third Reich, roughly 10,000 infants were born in Lebensborn homes in Germany. The "Law on the Unification of the Health Care System" (adopted in 1935) sparked the construction of a network of health care offices in cities and rural areas that would become the instrument of Nazi race and population policy in the area of public health. While the Soviet officers' addresses were posted in the camps for those who might want to visit them, they were not allowed in, as their presence would have been too inflammatory. He must have been suffering from serious pain,” said Mr. Heim, who is tall, like his father, with a long mournful face and speaks softly and carefully. Those deemed qualified after about six weeks of tests were issued new birth certificates with German names -- which were frequently --no one knows why -- close translations of their Polish names, and their parents were notified that they were being sent to Germans for their health. Only self-preservation eventually forced him to renounce it. Adults were encouraged to look down on Lebensborn children, Mr. Lengfelder said. “Pure-race," hereditarily healthy women were supposed to be completely denied access to abortion, whereas women deemed inferior on the basis of race or health were allowed, or even forced, to terminate their pregnancies. "I am sure that the Supreme Court will also say that the case falls under the statute of limitations as well, but we then have six months to negotiate with the government and reach agreement," said Mr Brandacher. I didn't know what that meant.'. "I’ve found it," she says triumphantly, "Look, I’m Lebensborn No 2620.". Inheriting the family firm of ship brokers, Folker worked in London after the war and made a fortune. Her name was Irmi; a photo was brought out for me to look at. "I was big, blond and Aryan,different from the southern Germans,and everyone asked me, 'Where did you come from?' "We feel that justice cannot be done without an economic compensation. Gisela Heidenreich, who wrote an autobiographical novel in 2002 called "The Endless Year," said her mother was a secretary in the Lebensborn program who had a love affair with her father, an SS training officer. Only in the last 20 years, as the wall of silence began crumbling, have researchers been able to document the Lebensborn program. The babies were regarded as mentally defective and kept for decades in Norwegian mental institutions. Beast ... Amon Goeth astride a horseFrank was hanged by the Allies after the war but Niklas says he was "condemned to a living death because of the slime-hole of a Hitler fanatic that I had for a father.". But in Poland, alone, 200,000 blond, blue-eyed children were kidnapped and disappeared in Hitler’s Third Reich. They met the next day. That some children continued their education in pubs, church halls or anywhere else there was the space to accommodate them was seen as the accepted face of a requirement that had been foist on the government. Once the soldier convinced his unit to make Alex a Nazi, he got his own tailor-made SS uniforms; his own miniature gun; and his own rank: corporal - the youngest corporal in the Nazi army. If they were encircled or outnumbered, they fought-on until there were no survivors. After his mother died in 1914, his family moved to Linz, Austria. "He froze. I declined and as a result she refused to meet me again or to have acquaintances provide further information. Beware of counseling and treatment by unqualified persons!" Seine Forschungsschwerpunkte sind unter anderem Musikarchäologie des Vorderen Orients und Ägyptens sowie Bauforschung im Vorderen Orient. Modern equipment and qualified staff made the clinics popular with the pregnant wives of SS and Nazi officials as well. In 1959 Norbert Lebert conducted the first round of interviews, which included Wolf-Rudiger Hess, Martin Bormann junior, Niklas and Norman Frank, Gudrun Himmler, Edda Göring, and the von Schirach brothers. Exactly how many children were moved by Lebensborn or other organisations remains unknown due to the destruction of archives by SS members prior to fleeing the advancing Allied forces. Creating ‘racially pure’ Aryan babies was the aim of the Lebensborn program; world domination was its ultimate goal. I was 23, a child welfare officer with UNRRA (the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration) and wore the UNRRA khaki uniform. In February, Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels retaliated by issuing a German declaration of "Total War.". Last year, a group of Lebensborn launched a legal action before the European Court of Human Rights, seeking compensation from the Norwegian government of between £50,000 and £200,000. During the Nuremburg Trial in 1947 of Lebensborn staff and officers, they testified that all documents of kidnapping had been destroyed (Sereny). As Mr. Weber, 63, told his story to a hushed room of mostly gray-haired men and women here, there were sympathetic nods, but little surprise. The aim of the programme was to entrust leadership of Norway to these "Aryans" after the war, or to have them and their mothers move to Germany to bring more Nordic blood into the German Reich. After the war, the mothers went through purgatory as France was swept with a tide of anti-German hostility and collaboration amnesia set in. It is unclear whether he ever sent the letter, which was found in his files, many of which were written in meticulous cursive style in German or English. And then he found out his real name: Elia Solomonovich Kalperin. Who would have taken babies or toddlers away from mothers? At 13, I ran away. There also appear to have been facilities for older babies that the mothers could turn to. Olaf was a living specimen of the ‘master race.’. Bunte knew it had a great scoop in the Mengele papers, if they were authentic. "And then I saw my mother with my brother and sister also there. These bridges in Berlin were supposed to be used by General Wenck's relief army coming from the south. Witnesses from Finland to Vietnam and from Saudi Arabia to Argentina have sent tips and reported sightings to investigators. As a result, after te War it was very difficult for these children to find teir birth parents. Decisions about who should procreate and how their offspring should be fed and brought up became a matter of "national health" [Volksgesundheit]. Many thousands of their mothers - labelled 'German whores' - were sent to secret prison camps, where they were virtually slave labourers. On a blistering June afternoon in 1985, dozens of journalists gathered around a small, dusty graveyard in Embu, Brazil. 192.] Another brother and sister were punished as preschoolers by being put in a locked pig sty without food for two days and nights. The war ended with Germany's unconditional surrender on May 7, 1945. Children found to be racially worthless were either sent home or, if old enough and capable, sent toGermany to work. Since Hitler was not married, she often stood at his side at official state receptions or party functions. But it was my mother's blood," Kurzem told 60 Minutes correspondent Bob Simon. Children always sense atmosphere. Kahrau's mother concealed the truth, saying only that her soldier father had been killed during World War II. After her book came out, she got letters from people saying, "I'm happy you wrote this because I finally could find my own feelings in this book -- but I don't want anyone to know about my past.". Like others, Hoess had to overcome fierce resistance within his own family, who preferred that he "not poke around in the past." In a period when family history has burgeoned on television and in books and magazines, I realize that I belong to a generation who see themselves as custodians of their grandparents' lives. 317-883-3732 Aaliyah Lobos. ", Last year, 157 of the children appealed to the European Court of Human Rights but lost on the grounds that their problems happened too long ago. The younger boys were assigned to operate search lights and assist with communications, often riding their bicycles as dispatch riders. Eichmann wuchs nach eigener Aussage ohne besondere Auseinandersetzung mit der Geschichte des Vaters auf, über den auch in der Familie nicht geredet wurde. Because he’d been in the SS, his family hid him as a farm worker from the occupying Americans. The Perfect NaziBy Martin DavidsonHardcover, 384 pagesPutnam AdultList Price: $26.95. I could work out, well, what age was this man when all of that Nazi stuff was happening?". At the headquarters of the Baden-Württemberg state police in Stuttgart today, small magnets freckle a map of the world, marking the spots where clues or reports of sightings surfaced. Germany under Hitler would now fight-on to the very last, utilizing every available human and material resource. East German spies would take on the names and what was known of the pre-adoption identities of the children. "A racist is forever a racist.". And I knew that I couldn't do anything about it. The only problem was that the information was almost forty-five years old. But trepidation, too. "He was washing dishes in a cafe and rolled up his sleeves and I saw the number tattooed on his arm. Below: Near the end--April 20th, 1945--the Führer with Hitler Youths outside his Berlin bunker. Adolf Eichmann was kidnapped by Israeli agents in Buenos Aires and flown to Israel, where he was hanged for his crimes in 1962. Nearly 200 officers and others were killed, in some cases, slowly hanged from meat hooks. And the boys kept getting younger. For instance, it could be revoked if a mother ceased to be “worthy”: if she neglected her children, cheated on her husband, or exhibited problematic behavior. ) “I never told anyone I was a Lebensborn child because it was nothing to be proud of. They were mostly illegitimate and half German, some of them fathered by German occupation soldiers abroad, others the product of relationships between German girls and foreign slave workers in Germany. That army, unknown to the boys, had already been destroyed and now existed on paper only. and most of you will know what it is like to see a hundred corpses lying together, or 500 or 1000 . Himmler also offered promotions to SS men,Nazi zealots who served as Hitler's bodyguards, ran concentration camps and massacred "racially inferior" people in occupied lands,on the basis of the number of offspring they produced. I never asked him what he did. Investigators in Israel and Germany have repeatedly said that they believed Dr. Heim was alive and hiding in Latin America, near where a woman alleged to be his illegitimate daughter lived in Chile. The father said he knew I wouldn't understand, but it had been a great honor for the boy, the family: Yes, they could have asked to have him returned home after the death of their daughter; there were provisions for that -- the party cared, he said stubbornly. The children were often christened in an SS ritual in which the SS dagger was held over them as the mother swore allegiance to Nazi ideology. Blackey, who was known to be deeply opposed to the Western resettlement measures and had long lobbied the State Department that UNRRA-and not bureaucrats should be authorized to make final decisions about these children, wrote, "The cable which our Washington Office had reported as being prepared by the State Department for USFET, has [still] not reached them. 'They were to be my parents. At least three cases of stolen identity have been identified since the reunification of Germany, and the real owners of the identities have been reunited with their birth families. And one day I'll strike it lucky.". We sang around campfires. Neither a camp Kommandant nor an architect of the Holocaust, neither a Höss nor an Eichmann, he was nevertheless an enabler of evil, one of its indispensable, and very active, minions. One is that there is no sign of our extensive official correspondence with Washington and London, all of which was cosigned by Whiting, the highest ranking UNRRA official in the U.S. zone, at the National Archives in Washington, the UNRRA archives in New York, or at the Public Record Office in the U.K. Second, although a ruling about sending the Russian-born children overseas instead of repatriating them was frequently discussed, and many such children were in fact sent abroad, there is no trace of a document actually recording such a ruling. The stories are brutal and grotesque. Many of the fathers were SS officers with their own families. Eichmann’s alias was Ricardo Klement. The young man was dressed in a dark gray double-breasted suit, and he carried a thick black attache' case. When she was 6 months old, her mother returned from Munich to work in Goebbels's ministry in Berlin, and dispatched Helga to the foster care of a high-ranking Nazi secret policeman. "But there were no documents and no photos.”. In 12 Rules for Life, clinical psychologist and celebrated professor at Harvard and the University of Toronto Dr. Jordan B. Peterson helped millions of readers impose order on the chaos of their lives. One hurdle I quickly encountered was a cultural one. War crimes ... Heinrich Himmler with his daughter Gudrun, "He pointed to the door of the cafe and told me never to come back.". They went away and came back a day later. The Russians by now were roaring toward Berlin, capitol of Nazi Germany, where Hitler had chosen to make his last stand. The result was the formation of the 12th SS-Panzer Division Hitlerjugend. (1933), "The Cross of Honor for the German Mother": Three-Tiered Medal for Mothers with Four or More Children (1938), Magda Goebbels at Home with her Children (1938), "Aryan" Children Subjected to LSD Experiments, Sexual Abuse & Mass Rape, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/crossing_continents/1691452.stm, http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06329/741216-84.stm#ixzz1cJcGY1JH, "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service". By the time she returned to Norway, bringing with her two little boys - street children she fostered in Mexico- Gerd was determined to seek justice for the war children. One Sunday a month between October and March, German families were asked to eat a simple stew and to give any money they saved in doing so to the Winter Relief Organization. He was astonished. London was obviously targeted during the Blitz, but other cities were also badly bombed – Plymouth and Coventry being obvious examples. It took me a couple of years to tell him about my history but he has always been a huge support and we've been married for 47 years. Even so, how Dr. Heim was able to elude his pursuers for so long, while receiving money from Europe, most notably from his late sister, Herta Barth, and corresponding with friends and family in long letters, is unclear. Alexander Michelowski was kidnapped aged 10 from his own house in 1942. My mother then married a former resistance fighter, who hated anything German, particularly me. It was my grandparents who brought me up and told me about my father. Pwllheli, North Wales, was not allocated any evacuees – and 400 turned up. 317-883-9409 Henlee Vipond. And even, even as a child, I could do the math. He hoped that the court trial would reveal the dark history of Norwegian state ruling. Mr. Doma, who wanted to put Uncle Tarek in the family crypt next to his father, opposed the plan. But I live with his name. The file contains bills showing how the Nazis covered the midwife bill when Gerd was born, just because her father was a German soldier. No one answered my knock, and as I opened the unlocked door and found myself in a dark entry I could smell that slightly acid animal scent that was always present in European peasants' homes. Bruno may not have been a participant in the darkest of Nazi atrocities; there were many Nazis more heinous than he. The children who refused the Nazi education were often beaten. Heinrich Himmler created the Lebensborn Eingetragener Verein to offer young, so-called racially pure girls the chance to give birth to a child in secret. I abandoned my South American investigation and flew to Munich. It was never mentioned.". The only clue he had to anything was one word that had stuck in his mind for all those years: Koidanov. Children in Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Franceetc would all have experienced the terror produced by Blitzkrieg. But I attained a certain degree of serenity," said Delorme, now 65 and retired from the French postal service in Menton on the French Riviera. With the Waffen-SS and regular army now depleted of men, Hitler ordered Hitler Youth boys as young as fifteen to be trained as replacements and sent to the Russian Front. Eichmann Delusion Syndrome. War children were segregated from the rest of the school. Another big change was the elimination of the strict division between the Jungvolk (boys 10 to 14) and the actual HJ (Hitler Youth 14 to 18). There was no medical prognosis behind his decision; it was just that we were war children, and therefore must be "retarded" due to our parentage. But it is an important one, and I have learned much while doing it. The often haunting wartime recollections of the sons and daughters of prominent Nazis are powerful reminders that Hitler's crimes have claimed many victims. Every available male aged 16 to 60 was conscripted into this new army and trained to use the Panzerfaust anti-tank weapon. All women's organizations were thus regarded as auxiliaries ranking below their male counterparts. "What we have lived through and the deprivation we felt all our lives push us to make our voices heard," said Gerlina Swillen, a Belgian secondary school teacher and researcher at Vrije University in Brussels. The children would truly believe that they were German and that these homes were the greatest place to be. "I thought before I die, I should know who I am. The attacks by both V1’s and V2’s only ended as the Allies advanced up through Western Europe after the success of D-Day. The HJ Panzer Division, now fully trained and equipped, conducted divisional maneuvers observed by General Heinz Guderian and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, both of whom admired the enthusiasm and expressed their high approval of the proficiency achieved by the young troops in such a short time. As he'd watched his mother and hundreds of others being killed below, he told us he bit his hand to keep from screaming, and that he passed out several times. My own reaction has helped me to understand how people in those days just put the blinders on and ignored the terrible things that were happening.”. Mr. Doma, 38, became emotional when talking about the man he knew as Uncle Tarek, whom he said gave him books and encouraged him to study. In addition to these children of prominent wartime figures, there are also two cases in which the parents are virtually unknown but the stories told by their daughters are particularly compelling. Otherwise, there is no record of how many children of contested nationality there were, how many of them were sent overseas or otherwise resettled, or indeed how many of the stolen children were never discovered and, ignorant of their origins, remained in Germany.